When an organism dies, it contains the standard ratio of 14C to 12C, but as the 14C decays with no possibility of replenishment, the proportion of carbon 14 decreases at a known constant rate.
The time taken for it to reduce by half is known as the half-life of 14C.
Additionally, the impact strips off several of the ion's electrons, converting it into a positively charged ion.
In the second half of the accelerator, the now positively charged ion is accelerated away from the highly positive centre of the electrostatic accelerator which previously attracted the negative ion.
Molecules will break apart in this stripping stage.