Copyright © 1916, 1917, and 1918 by Wells Fargo & Co. 243-60, published in the Country Gentleman, are reproduced with the permission of the Curtis Publishing Company. Copyright © 1923, 1925, and 1927 by Charles Scribner's Sons. 344-67, published in Hotel Management, are reproduced with the permission of Hotel and Motel Management. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Levin, Gail Edward Hopper as illustrator. Changing fashions in methods oi subject mattei altei him little oi noi at all. Perhaps his past successes there inspired him to try another hotel-related periodical, resulting in his steady employment at Hotel Management. Edward Hopper, illustration for Wells Fargo & Company brochure, 1917- ment even more specific.

Published in association with the Whitney Museum of American Art. 1 In spiti ni Edward Hoppei s statement in 1935 ol his beliel that an artist's mature development is linked to the work ol his Formative years, almost ii" attention has been given to the many illustrations Hoppei worked on during the twenty yean From 190G to 1925. Certainly he found it attractive to illustrate for La France because of his enjoyment of French culture and pleasant memories of France. The frustration experienced by many illus- trators of contemporary fiction was aptly expressed by popular illus- trator James Montgomery Flagg's article of 1915 entitled "A Challenge to Authors." co In his article Flagg lamented the difficult task of the illustrator by publishing his illustrations and inviting writers to "au- thorstrate" them.

Published references to Hoppei s careei as an illustratoi are scant. Fiction, however, represented greater problems for the illustrator: the author's product was unpredictable and the illustrator's assign- Iward Hoppei if • Woon ig4g Oil on cam u sfl (o inches Collection of Mi and Mrs. The Hopper illustrations which have the least rela- tionship to his later art are those for fiction which appeared in Adven- ture and Everybody's (Pis. For example, among his illustrations for Everybody's in 1921 are depictions of African tribal warriors at battle, surely an alien topic for the quiet Hopper (PI. Despite the older Hopper's defensiveness and generally negative attitude toward his early work in illustration, we can conclude that his experiences as an illustrator helped to shape his mature art.

None "l the hooks 01 exhibition catalogues on American illustration "l this period considered i even acknowledged Ins illustrations, probably be cause the authors have not known ol then existence Hoppei himsell d 1 sin used this aspect "I liis ( a mci m fact, he covered it up. 17 I l11 )- A woman standing in a bedroom before an open window appeared as early as July 1912 as an illustration in The Metropolitan Magazine, then in Hopper's etching Evening Wind of 1921; this theme is also developed in paintings such as Moonlight Interior of about 1920-23, Morning in a City of 1944, and A Woman in the Sun of 19O1 (Figs. Of course, in his etching and all of these paintings, the female figure is nude, a liberty Hopper could not take in his illus- tration. Many of the illustrations have a graphic strength and quality not indicated by his negative comments.

All Rights Reserved First Edition BOOK DESIGN BY ANTON IN A KRASS LAYOUT BY BEN GAMIT Typography by Fuller Typesetting of Lancaster Four-color printing by Eastern Press Inc. Copyright © 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, and 1919 by Webb Publishing Company. 224-42, published in Wells Fargo Messenger, and Pis. The nucleus around which the artist's intellect builds his work is himself; the central ego, pi rsonality, i what* in. \n (ailed, and this changes little from birth to death. His interest in trains no doubt encouraged his interest in the Wells Fargo Messenger.

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