Via the male line, all humans can trace their ancestry back to a single male (Y-chromosomal Adam) at around 60,000 years ago.
However, such coalescence is genetically expected and does not, in itself, indicate a population bottleneck, because mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome are only a small part of the entire genome, and are atypical in that they are inherited exclusively through the mother or through the father, respectively.
In other words, all living humans' female line ancestry can be traced back to a single female (Mitochondrial Eve) at around 140,000 years ago.
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jubatus raineyi, were studied to determine the time period in which the genetic bottleneck occurred.
Due to human interference cheetah populations in sub-Saharan Africa have been classified as “Appendix 1, endangered species” by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, leaving a small range of only 10,000-25,000 cheetahs throughout the area (Menotti-Raymond & O'Brien, 1993).
The cultures collected were then ran through electrophoresis and further studied using nuclear minisatellite variations and clones.
After collecting enough data regarding the mt DNA, they were compared to species such as the lion, tiger, leopard, snow leopard, and jaguar, because these felines all share common ancestry.
Among the most controversial species currently embroiled in conservation programs are the African cheetah ().